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SymbolPLA Rank1547 Price USD0.0024 Market Cap USD543,926 24H volume USD283 Circulating Supply225,000,000 Total Supply5,000,000,000 % last hour 26.52 % last 24 hours 29.67 % last seven days 1.14  

 

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Throughout the Universe there are two trillion  galaxies

We live in one The Milky Way.

Each   of these galaxies are filled with hundreds of  billions of stars each with their own planets   just like ours.

These numbers are crazy and big  and don't mean much to us humans.

But all you need   to know is there are practically infinite planets.  This means the craziest planets you can dream up   probably exist somewhere out there and today I  want to show you the five craziest planets we've   discovered so far.

So buckle in because these  planets are beautiful mind-blowing and perhaps   even a little bit scary.

But most importantly they  are real.

These are real places in the universe.

Welcome to Kepler 16b the planet with  two suns.

Now this planet has earned the   nickname Tatooine in real life because of  its astounding similarity to the Star Wars   Planet Tatooine.

Kepler-16b is around the  same size as Saturn and is just 245 light   years away from us.

This was the first planet  ever discovered in a circumbinary orbit which   is just a fancy way of saying this planet  actually orbits two suns.

This means that   if you were to go outside on the planet you  would see two stars moving across the sky   during the day.

I mean can you imagine what  a double sunset would look like Now while   it would be awesome if we could live there this  planet actually orbits outside of the habitable   zone meaning it would be too cold for liquid  water to exist on the surface.

Sorry Luke...

This next planet is so terrifying that it has been  given the nickname The Planet Of Terror.

To the   untrained eye this planet looks inviting it's a  nice bright blue color and looks relatively calm   but any space traveler who confused it for the  friendly Skies of Earth would be badly mistaken.   The weather on this planet is deadly.

I'm  talking 5400 mile per hour winds.

That is   seven times the speed of sound...

This would  throw any visiting spacecraft off course and   cause them certain doom.

Do you want to know  something even worse The wind wouldn't just   blow you around aggressively it would cause  death by a thousand cuts literally...

The   planet rains 500 degree glass.

Imagine clouds of  glass shards flying towards you at 5400 miles   per hour.

I don't know about you but I'll be  skipping on the trip to the planet of Terror...

Up next we have the planet that most astronomers  refer to as Super-Saturn.

This outrageous planet   has rings 640x the size of Saturn's rings.

It is  just 400 light years away from Earth and defies   expectations for what we previously thought was  possible.

Well if the Rings are 640x the size of   Saturn's rings let's imagine what it might look  like if we replaced Saturn with Super-Saturn in   our solar system.

It would look a little something  like this.

The rings would be so bright that   they're easily visible at night and they would  be significantly larger than the full moon...

This planet is looking a bit more familiar.  Kepler-186f is often called Earth's cousin   because of its striking similarities to Earth.  The planet is around 500 light years from Earth   and is only about 10 percent larger.

Perhaps even  more exciting is that the planet orbits within the   habitable zone around its star.

Meaning in theory  life could exist on the planet.

But here's where   things start to get weird...

The star that the  planet orbits is much cooler and much redder   than our sun and this means that the majority  of the photons hitting the planet are within the   red wavelengths of light.

Now because of this the  photosynthesis in plants on this planet could have   evolved drastically different to those on Earth  changing the plants from a green color like you   might see on Earth to a striking red color.

Just  imagine forests of bright red trees the lettuce   in your burger a bright red color.

In fact this  idea was so interesting to NASA that they created   a poster that reads Kepler 186f where the  grass is always redder on the other side .

Not every planet has a star.

Some  aren't a part of a solar system like us.   They're all alone and they're known as rogue  planets.

These planets don't orbit they simply   drift along through the cold dark depths of space  all alone.

On this planet it likely rains but   these rains are not made of water.

Instead they  are bands of molten iron.

We still don't fully   understand how these planets come to exist but  our best theories are that they are either failed   stars or planets that have been ejected from baby  systems right after smashing into another planet.   As they drift into the darkness their molten  cores begin to cool eventually leaving them cold   dark and alone drifting through space.

If  one were to drift into our solar system   it could collide with the planet causing mass  destruction.

Or it could even gravitationally   pull on planets causing them to be thrown  out of the solar system.

The chances are   of course low but if one was headed for  us I'm not sure there's much we could do.

These planets are just as real as Earth and in  some cases there is a very real possibility that   life could exist on them.

I mean we are just a  collective of relatively smart primates that live   on a small blue world drifting through a seemingly  silent universe.

For as long as we've existed   we've looked to the stars and dreamed about what  might be out there.

Now I believe in aliens and I   believe they're out there somewhere but for  now it's just us and maybe that's enough...





J1407b is one of the weirdest planets scientists have discovered

Located about 434 light-years from Earth this is Saturn on steroids.

Studying this eerie world astronomers struggled to measure its mass precisely but it’s believed to be around 10-40 Jupiter masses .

J1407b is also a giant planet much larger than the biggest planet in our solar system.

What shocked scientists was the planet’s ring system of enormous size.

It consists of 30 rings each the size of tens of millions of kilometers in diameter.

According to rough estimates the diameter of the entire ring system is 120 million kilometers .

This is 200 times larger than the rings around Saturn! If Saturn had its ring system this big it would dominate our night sky.

But although this would’ve been a breathtaking view it wouldn’t last long.

The rings would eventually become thinner as several satellites would form around the planet.

But that’s just the beginning.

The Universe has stored a lot more bizarre worlds for us! How can one planet be hotter than the Sun and the other one larger than its star How is there such a thing as a marshmallow planet and what are blanets We’ve prepared a list of the most mind-blowing worlds for you.

INTRO One of them is an exoplanet located 57 light-years away from Earth.

Dubbed GJ 504b it’s 4 times more massive but has just about the same size as Jupiter .

The weird thing about it - it’s pink quite an unusual color for a planet.

So how did it get its color The system is believed to be roughly 160 million years old a newborn compared to our solar system.

And because of the exoplanet’s age it’s still changing and losing the heat of its formation which gives it a dull magenta glow.

But our universe doesn’t only come in electrifying colors it also has a lot of water-rich planets.

A Neptune-like exoplanet or the Waterworld has a mass of more than 8 Earths and a radius 0.24 times that of Jupiter .

And although this alien world may seem promising due to its abundance of water it’s no Earth twin.

The planet doesn’t have a solid surface and its atmosphere drastically differs from the one we have here.

Because of extreme pressure and heat it consists of water in a strange plasma form that behaves differently from that found on Earth.

Despite the fact that the temperatures there reach 280 degrees Celsius water on GJ 1214b doesn’t have the usual vapor liquid and gas phases but rather a constant supercritical fluid form.

So it has some properties of both liquid and gas but overall it’s neither and both all at once.

Now let’s move to the constellation Cygnus.

There about 650 light-years away sits a scorching world - KEPLER-70b.

With a mass of just 0.44 Earths and a radius 0.75 times our planet’s this is one of the hottest exoplanets known to us.

The planet’s star KEPLER 70 was once a main-sequence star like our Sun while KEPLER-70b used to be a gas giant the size of Jupiter.

But about 18.5 million years ago the star went through its red giant stage.

As a result of spending a significant amount of time inside its now dead star a hot iron core of the planet is all that’s left.

Scientists think the planet is still evaporating which could eventually it even smaller.

So how hot is it Because KEPLER-70b is 65 times closer to its star than Mercury is to the Sun the temperature on this exoplanet reaches a mind-blowing 6650 degrees Celsius .

To compare our Sun’s surface is only about 5500 degrees Celsius ! So if hell exists it must be it.

About 640 light-years away from us sits yet another scorching exoplanet dubbed WASP-76b.

But that’s not the only thing the planet is known for it also has permanent darkside and molten iron rains.

Discovered in 2016 it is nearly as massive as Jupiter .

Since it’s tidally locked to a star the planet faces it at all times.

The temperatures on the dayside reach 2350 degrees Celsius .

This is more than enough to cause metals like iron to evaporate into the atmosphere.

Additionally the radiation that the dayside receives is thousands of times more than that our planet gets from the Sun.

The darkside of WASP-76b is almost twice colder.

Due to this extreme difference in temperatures intense winds form on this exoplanet.

Because of that the iron vapor from the hotter part of the planet is carried by the wind to the colder side.

And as this vapor cools it rains molten iron.

That is odd enough but not as odd as the planet dubbed PSR J1719-1438b.

But what’s so impressive about it This exoplanet is 3000 times larger than its host neutron star! What’s more it wasn’t always a planet it used to be a star in the past.

But let’s start from the beginning.

The exoplanet orbits an incredibly dense and tiny neutron star about 20 kilometers across.

Only one teaspoon of this star’s material would weigh billions of tons on Earth.

The star is also a millisecond pulsar that emits beams of radiation while spinning every 5.4 milliseconds.

This is about 10000 rotations per minute! The star isn’t lonely it has a companion planet about 40% the size of Jupiter - PSR J1719-1438b.

At the same time this alien exoplanet is more massive than Jupiter .

So how come it’s so small and yet so massive This is because the exoplanet was once a star whose outer layers were stripped away by a much more massive nearby pulsar.

This left a carbon remnant of a star that became a diamond world about 5 times the size of our planet.

It now has a diameter of roughly 60000 kilometers .

And because the exoplanet’s proximity to the pulsar is very close the whole system could fit within the diameter of our Sun.

Space seems to be crowded with weird exoplanets.

And some of them have properties so bizarre you could hardly believe these celestial bodies exist.

Dubbed WASP-107b this peculiar world has the density of cotton candy which makes scientists revise their understanding of how gas giants form.

While the exoplanet is about the same size as Jupiter it’s only 30 Earth masses .

But Jupiter is 300 times as massive as our home planet! What’s more the core of WASP-107b is just 4 times bigger than the Earth’s core while it should be about 10 times that of our planet’s.

Because of all this WASP-107b has an incredibly low density.

In fact it’s like a marshmallow floating in space.

So far none of these worlds seem to be giving us any hope of colonizing them.

But Gliese 581d could.

Finding a planet that would be suitable for life is challenging itself.

And it becomes even more so because of how far away most of them are.

That’s why Gliese 581d looks so promising it sits well within 20 light-years from Earth and has a mass just about 6 times the Earth’s.

The exoplanet is in a habitable zone of its star so the temperatures could be right for liquid water on its surface.

However because it’s tidally locked one side of Gliese 581d is always warmer than the other.

But it’s not all that bad.

Since carbon dioxide is abundant in the planet’s atmosphere it would keep the nightside from freezing.

While the Earth has its own regular day-night cycle and the majority of lifeforms here have adapted to live under such conditions it’s a big if the same could ever do splendid show up, on Gliese 581d given we colonize it one day.

But if we do the best idea would be to live in the region of habitability on the line that separates day and night also called the “twilight zone”.

The vastness of space is unimaginable.

And 2MASS J2126 is living proof of that.

This strange world was once thought to be a free-floating or lonely planet.

But this celestial body isn’t that lonely.

It turns out 2MASS J2126 moves through space along with a star TYC 9486-927-1.

The weird thing is both objects have been known to astronomers for years but nobody saw the link between them.

But then scientists discovered the exoplanet and the star are both roughly 104 light-years from the Sun which means they’re connected.

Later observations showed the planet orbits its star at a distance of a trillion (1 million million) kilometers .

This is roughly 7000 times the distance from our planet to the Sun.

This makes it the largest orbital radius of any planet known so far.

Interestingly a result of such a huge orbit is that a year on this exoplanet equals about 900000 Earth-years.

Now let’s get back to our solar system for a moment.

The biggest planet here has 79 moons.

So it seems logical exoplanets should have exomoons too.

But for years scientists haven’t been able to find any.

Until now.

Locating small cosmic bodies orbiting exoplanets is extremely hard.

Nevertheless astronomers have finally succeeded.

But they didn’t spot an exomoon they found something even better than that - the first-ever clear evidence of a moon-forming disk surrounding a huge distant exoplanet named PDS 70c.

With the help of the ALMA telescope in Chile scientists detected a disk in which satellites could eventually form.

And its material is enough to 3 of them each about the size of the Earth’s moon.

For the first time in the history of astronomy human beings could be observing how these small round worlds form in space and not on a computer simulation but live! The last exoplanet on our list is KOI-5Ab.

And what makes this one specifically unique is not its properties but the system it is a member of.

The planet about half the size of Saturn was first ignored because it was complicated and even considered science fiction.

A decade later the system named KOI-5 was given the scientific attention it deserved.

It turned out astronomers stumbled across a triple-star system.

The planet revolves around star A which has a relatively close companion star B.

They both revolve around each other every 30 years.

But there's also a third gravitationally bound star star C.

And this one orbits stars A and B every 400 years! If we could somehow travel to this exoplanet and hover on the edge of this world’s atmosphere with our spacecraft we’d be seeing breathtaking and unusual things.

The bottom view would most probably be filled with dark brown and gray clouds.

And instead of one sun you’d see two one 17 times bigger than our star and the other one quite smaller and just about half a percent as bright as our Sun.

But regardless of this the fainter star would still glow a thousand times brighter than the full moon here on Earth.

No matter how unusual these alien planets are there could be even stranger celestial bodies in our Universe.

So far blanets are purely hypothetical.

But some scientists believe these could actually exist.

If so such mysterious worlds would form from the collisions of gas and dust particles surrounding black holes.

These planets would also evolve at great distances from supermassive black holes making their orbits million years long.

The Universe has no boundaries not just in terms of distances but also in terms of creativity.

Now and then astronomers discover mind-boggling space objects that broaden our limited imagination of the place we live in.

It took us many years to discover all the planets of our solar system and they’re still surprising us with their properties.

So who knows how much more eye-opening findings about the 5000 known exoplanets are still ahead of us.





BEAR A snow leopard

He hasn't eaten in days.

This may be his last chance.

(theme music plays).

I'm two miles above sea level here and it is brutal.

Cold desolate hard to breathe.

But for some this is home.

Mountains are one of the most hostile environments on our planet.

Now with the rise in global temperatures life is even tougher.

The relentless search for food.

Intense competition.

Unpredictable weather.

Mountain animals are pushed to the edge of existence.

The Arctic Circle.

Nowhere is the planet warming faster.

Spring has arrived here early.

And that's bad news for the barnacle geese that breed in these mountains.

Many nests have failed...

but not this one.

Three chicks.

They're lucky to have made it.

Forced by the early spring the parents rush to their migration.

They arrived exhausted.

The female sat on the eggs for 25 days.

She's lost 30% of her body weight.

But for this family the greatest challenge is still to come.

The parents chose to nest on this 400 foot pinnacle.

It's the only way to evade predators.

Just one problem...

the grass they eat is a mile away by the river.

And barnacle geese can't feed their young in the nest.

If the chicks don't feed within 36 hours they'll starve.

And these chicks won't be able to fly for another month.

The parents are living proof there is a solution.

Just not an easy one.

Dad leads the way.

But the chicks are instinctively bonded to mum.

Where she goes they follow.

(peeping).

Incredibly it survived.

But it's stunned.

And now dangerously exposed.

(honking cawing).

One chick gone.

Now hope rests with the other two.

The back of the spire is a shorter drop.

But it's much harder to avoid the rocks.

For this chick there will be no escape.

The third and last surviving chick.

♪ ♪ The snow cushions the impact but offers no grip.

(honking).

Only around 50% of chicks hatched on these cliffs it through the first month.

With the seasons increasingly unpredictable fewer chicks will survive.

But this chick at least has defied the odds.

A changing climate is affecting life in mountains across the world.

Late winter.

The average temperature here is rising a degree every decade.

Bad news for a snow leopard.

Thick fur enables him to withstand temperatures of -20 Fahrenheit.

But today it's 66.

To find enough food he must patrol a territory of 80 square miles.

Dry barren slopes don't support much prey.

It can be more than a week between meals.

He must a kill or starve.

BEAR 16000 feet up in the Himalayas a desperately hungry snow leopard.

His best opportunity in days is within sight.

Blue sheep.

In this heat he can't run far.

He needs to close the gap.

His camouflage helps.

But with so little cover it's hard to get close enough.

He ran too early.

And it's too hot to give chase.

Like all who live here his fortunes are linked to the mountain climate.

And even small changes can have dramatic consequences.

Here in Africa rising temperatures are forcing mountain life ever higher.

An army of Gelada monkeys is gathering.

They're all after one thing.

But to find it they must climb higher and higher.

Their numbers grow to 1200 strong.

One of the largest gatherings of monkeys on the planet.

At 10000 feet this is what they're after.

Grass.

It's almost all they eat.

But so many monkeys in such a small area means trouble.

Especially for this old male.

He needs a lot of energy to defend his family.

Ten females and 12 youngsters.

But you don't get much from grass.

He has to spend ten hours a day feeding.

And today he's gonna need all the energy he can get.

Bachelor males.

Outcasts.

Forced to the edge of society.

Any one of them would be happy to take down the old male and become the new family leader.

To hold onto power the old male must prove his strength both to the bachelors and his females.

He challenges them to chase him.

(barking yelling).

But no one dares to attack.

His show of force has worked.

For now.

The old male has little time to refuel before the herd moves on.

The bachelors are back.

(barking yelling).

At this high altitude each confrontation takes more energy.

A relentless cycle of moving feeding and fighting.

Moving feeding fighting.

By late afternoon the old male is exhausted.

The strongest bachelor 45 pounds of muscle with energy to burn.

He's the most serious challenger yet and the old male knows it.

BEAR Two male Gelada monkeys fight for supremacy.

A dominant male and a younger bachelor.

One against one the bachelor is stronger.

The old male won't last much longer.

At least not alone.

His females are loyal.

They won't give up on their protector yet.

This united force is overwhelming.

The old male is victorious.

But it's tough at the top.

As the climate warms and the grass they depend on retreats higher their battle for survival will only intensify.

In the heat of mid-summer mountain goats seek out cooler temperatures on the high ridges.

This female is a natural mountaineer.

She can easily access the best grazing even with a kid in tow.

But there's one thing they both need that's far harder to reach.

Today they must leave the ridge and descend into the heat of the valley.

For the little one this is a dangerous journey.

With the mercury hitting 100 degrees Fahrenheit this is the hottest summer on record.

After a winter of heavy snow this means more meltwater than ever.

Mum's made this journey before but some rivers are at their highest level in 100 years.

♪ ♪ Their goal is in sight.

Just one more river to cross.

But it's the deepest and widest yet.

The current is too strong for little legs.

And this is what they've risked their lives for.

A salt lick.

These goats crave sodium an essential mineral lacking in their mountain diet.

Summer in the mountains is short.

Harder times are coming.

Temperatures plummet.

Days shorten.

Winter is here.

But the hunt for food must continue.

Heavy snow on higher ridges has forced these ibex down into the valley.

A cold winter can be a blessing for a hungry snow leopard.

He's less likely to overheat.

But against the white he's visible for miles.

He must rely on stealth.

Not easy in such deep snow.

♪ ♪ The distance was too great.

The ibex too fast.

Now all the animals in the valley know he's here.

And he's burnt precious energy.

These are desperate times.

If he's to see winter through he may have to take bigger risks.

Throughout the mountains of the Northern Hemisphere winter's grip is tightening.

Animals must the most of any last opportunity before conditions drive them to take shelter.

Far above planetary forces are on a collision course.

A river of air the jet stream flows around the North Pole.

At its center sits a mass of cold Arctic air.

But now a warming upper atmosphere is slowing the jet stream.

And the cold air can escape.

By the time it hits The Rockies it's grown into a mega storm.

Freezing everything in its path.

BEAR In the depths of winter extreme storms rage across Canada and the USA.

Freezing temperatures wind speeds of up to 150 miles per hour.

Now even the toughest animals are at their limit of survival.

(wind whistling).

The storms may have passed but there is hidden danger in this landscape.

Winter storms have buried this area of British Columbia under nearly 40 feet of snow.

But if temperatures rise above freezing it can have lethal consequences.

On the high ridges wind driven snow has created huge overhangs some 25 feet thick.

The longer the temperatures stay above freezing the more the snow pack weakens.

(crashing).

Soon tens of thousands of tons of snow are traveling up to 80 miles an hour.

As weather patterns change avalanches across the world are growing bigger.

The more erratic and severe mountain winters become the more victims they'll claim.

But some are still succeeding in this harsh world.

Golden eagles live in almost every mountain range in the Northern Hemisphere.

They endure the alpine winter by using the brutal conditions to their advantage.

Like all golden eagles this female has a special sensory organ that detects change in air pressure allowing her to locate air currents rising off ridges.

With her seven foot wingspan she can climb to over 11000 feet.

Then to get to the next peak she folds her wings and dives.

With a top speed of 150 miles per hour she's one of the fastest animals on the planet.

It looks effortless and it needs to be.

A golden eagle may cover 100 miles a day scouring the slopes for any opportunity.

A flock of ravens is a good sign.

(cawing).

During winter golden eagles are forced to scavenge 90% of their food.

If finding food is hard keeping it is even harder.

A carcass like this attracts a lot of attention.

This male is powerful.

And eagles don't share.

Another brutal storm.

This could be the last chance to feed for days.

Starvation is a serious threat.

Only a quarter of young eagles will survive to reach maturity.

Will it be him or her Attacking from the air gives her the advantage.

But her victory is short lived.

Now both eagles may be fighting for their lives.

BEAR In the peaks of Norway two golden eagles are fighting for a chance to feed.

Both are desperate.

The female stands her ground.

But the male is not done.

(screaming).

Each eagle is armed with two inch talons.

These fights can be deadly.

Her kick was decisive.

What's left of the frozen flesh may be just enough to keep her alive.

But this harsh winter will drive others to even greater extremes.

This snow leopard's relentless search for food continues.

Following the scent of prey has drawn him to the edge of his territory and into a steep ravine.

Blue sheep.

The broken rock provides good cover.

But this is difficult terrain.

Now he must let them come to him.

♪ ♪ A 200 foot fall never letting go.

Finally the snow leopard can eat his fill.

But success has come at huge cost.

He's badly injured.

For a hunter that lives by its agility this could be fatal.

The challenges of survival up here at altitude is so extreme that it seems near impossible that anything can it.

But the resilience of mountain animals is near miraculous.

Incredibly just three days later we filmed the same snow leopard back on its feet hunting again.

It takes true grit to survive in these desolate unforgiving landscapes.

But somehow animals still manage to triumph to find shelter food and perhaps most importantly each other.

Against all odds snow leopards are still breeding here in the Himalayas.

They are living proof of mountain animals ability to succeed in a changing world.

Their offspring will be the hope for the future.

Captioned by Cotter Captioning Services.





Scientists don’t only study planets but also their weather

And on one of the planets in the solar system there are storms 1.3 times the diameter of Earth and raging with a force that is hard to imagine.

What's going on with Jupiter and why is it so important that everything is okay with the gas giant Our ancestors knew the monstrous size of Jupiter.

The gas giant’s mass is two and a half times the total mass of all the other planets in the solar system and 317.8 times - the mass of the Earth.

Jupiter’s volume is 1300 times larger than our planet’s.

But today we have advanced technologies that help us learn more about the gas giant than just its size and mass.

And astronomers pay a lot of attention to the study of Jupiter as our planet's future depends on it.

The latest data we have shows that right now something strange is happening with the planet.

Jupiter is considered the super vacuum cleaner of the solar system by astronomers because of its immense gravity well and where it orbits in the inner solar system.

The gas giant has taken some huge impacts from asteroids that could have hit the Earth in the past like Shoemaker-Levy 9 which slammed into Jupiter as it broke into pieces in 1994.

But the planet’s gravity isn’t always protecting us.

Along with Venus it affects the Earth’s climate.

Every 405000 years gravitational fluctuations between Earth Venus and Jupiter bring us abnormally cold winters and hot summers.

Droughts become severe and rains cause floods.

Researchers say we are now somewhere in the middle of this cycle.

And if something goes wrong on Jupiter it could affect Earth in a big way.

So what is the weird thing going on with Jupiter For one it’s most famous storm seems to be shrinking and we have no idea how that will affect the planet.

The Great Red Spot is a huge anticyclonic storm on Jupiter.

The largest storms on Earth are more than 1600 kilometers across with winds reaching up to 320 kilometers per hour .

But these hurricanes pale in comparison with The Great Red Spot anticyclone which is about 16000 kilometers in diameter.

The gigantic storm is circling Jupiter at 650 kilometers per hour .

Astronomers discovered The Great Red Spot in the 17th century and scientists still study this phenomenon.

The distinctive color of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot has been a mystery for a long time.

Some scientists believe the storm is colored by complex organic compounds.

The whirlwind lifts them from the inside of the planet into the upper layers of the atmosphere.

Others think the rusty color comes from sunlight splitting up different chemicals in the anticyclone's upper atmosphere.

If so the storm isn't actually very red at all and what we might see is just a sort of sunburn at the top of it.

Another interesting question is why the anticyclone lasts so long.

Scientists have suggested it’s because of Jupiter's composition which is mostly hydrogen and helium.

The gas giant has no solid surface to frictionally weaken the storm.

On Earth friction reduces the wind speed near the surface.

This slows down storms.

But other planets in our solar system aren't like the Earth either.

Saturn for example isn't rocky and storms there don’t last this long.

The biggest storm on Saturn The Great White Spot covers several thousand kilometers.

You can see it through a telescope as a white oval.

This spot appears every 30 years and then vanishes without any trace.

The Big Dark Spot on Neptune which was discovered in 1989 was also proved to be short-lived.

The wind around the storm reached supersonic speeds of up to 2400 kilometers per hour .

The large dark spot was constantly changing its shape and size.

With that much activity the storm was clearly not going to subside.

And yet in 1994 it disappeared.

But let’s get back to the Great Red Spot.

The Juno spacecraft passed over the anticyclone twice in 2019.

It took images of the storm to help determine its nature.

Using Juno's data scientists compiled a three-dimensional model of Jupiter.

It showed that The Great Red Spot extends much deeper than previously thought.

On Earth a storm of this size would rise above The International Space Station.

Researchers say that from above the cyclone looks like a huge pancake but a really thick one going 500 kilometers deep into the clouds of Jupiter.

This is 50 to 100 times deeper than the Earth's oceans! The storm is powered by atmospheric jets that go far deeper about 3000 kilometers .

Scientists are still trying to unravel the mechanism behind how these jets move.

So far there’s only one clue from the spacecraft data - atmospheric ammonia gas is moving up and down in the jets.

This is very different from the way things do splendid show up, on Earth.

On our planet atmospheric phenomena are largely driven by water clouds condensation and sunlight.

This is what we would probably see inside the Great Red Spot if we could get there.

The gravity there would be intense.

The Juno spacecraft passing over the Great Red Spot was like driving a car on a road full of potholes.

Radio waves reaching Earth were slightly compressed and stretched.

Thanks to this effect scientists picked up tiny tremors 0.01 millimeters per second and were able to calculate the gravity inside the storm.

It turned out to be so strong as if a mysterious planet was hiding at the bottom of the anticyclone.

But of course scientists didn't find any planet there only a gas surface.

Meanwhile new measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope show that the storm has changed its form from oval to round and shrunk considerably.

Previously three Earths would fit inside the monstrous storm but now only one can.

Look at these Hubble telescope images from 1995 2009 and 2014.

You can see how the Great Red Spot has shrunk in just 19 years.

So why is the storm on Jupiter shrinking and do we have anything to worry about if the storm disappears According to researchers something in the planet's atmosphere is killing the storm.

An unknown force is tearing apart the Great Red Spot.

In May 2017 The Gemini North Telescope spotted a small hook-shaped cloud on the west side of the storm and something else that looked like a wave peeling off its eastern side.

The Juno spacecraft also took an image of red flakes flying away from the spot.

Researchers confirm that formations of various shapes actually detach from the Great Red Spot and scatter into space.

These huge chunks up to 100000 kilometers in size are about the size of Portugal or Iceland.

Computer models show this is a very natural phenomenon for Jupiter's complex atmosphere.

It may do splendid show up, due to the convergence of the Great Red Spot and smaller storms.

On Jupiter anticyclones are attracted to other anticyclones.

And opposites such as cyclones and anticyclones repel.

The merging of anticyclones is a long process.

In the beginning a smaller storm becomes a small bulge closely adjacent to a larger hurricane.

Then the larger storm merges with the smaller one.

But when anticyclones meet with cyclones something different happens.

A clockwise rotation of an anticyclone and a counterclockwise rotation of a cyclone first brings them to an abrupt halt.

Then the motion resumes with an unimaginable force and scatters the storms in different directions.

A small anticyclone wouldn’t merge with the Great Red Spot but shatter into pieces instead.

And these pieces of different shapes would then separate from the storm.

This is what astronomers believe they are observing.

And the Great Red Spot is still shrinking.

According to scientists' calculations it could disappear in about 20 years.

Jupiter is unlikely to be affected but there may be some irreversible processes that the storm was preventing.

Only time will tell what will do splendid show up, when the storm completely disappears.

Based on data from the Hubble telescope the average wind speed around the red spot increased by 8% from 2009 to 2020.

And this means the anticyclone isn’t losing activity and may increase in size again.

Or it could be replaced by another storm.

In 2000 three small oval white vortexes on the planet merged together.

And at the end of 2005 a new hurricane turned red.

Astronomers called it The Small Red Spot.

In 2006 The Small Red Spot came into contact with The Great Red Spot.

Because this was a slight collision it didn’t have any significant effect on the two whirlwinds.

But how will the two storms get along in the future To sort things out NASA's Mission Juno was extended for five years in 2021.

The spacecraft will monitor mysterious polar cyclones the planet's magnetosphere and its incredible red storms.

Jupiter continues to be studied by the Hubble and Webb space telescopes as well as many ground-based observatories.

What else could scientists find on the gas giant And what's in store for the famous Great Red Spot Let us know what you think in the comments.

And be sure to subscribe to the channel so you don't miss out on anything incredible happening in our universe.

Thanks for watching!





There are eight planets in the solar system

We revolve around the Sun.

Join us to learn about the different planets.

Now sing along and have some fun.

My name is Mercury.

I'm the second hottest planet the closest one to the Sun.

A year on my surface is 88 days.

I'm the smallest but I'm lots of fun.

My name is Venus.

I'm the hottest planet but the second planet from the Sun.

I'm the brightest planet in our solar system and I'm too hot for anyone.

My name is Earth.

I'm the planet you live on the third planet from the Sun.

I'm the only planet with organic life so take care of me because we're all one.

My name is Mars.

I am red in color.

I'm the fourth planet from the Sun.

I have the highest mountain in our solar system a volcano named Olympus Mons.

There are eight planets in the solar system.

We revolve around the Sun.

Join us to learn about the different planets.

Now sing along and have some fun.

My name is Jupiter.

I am covered in clouds.

I'm the fifth planet from the Sun.

My giant red spot is a raging storm.

As for size I'm the biggest one.

My name is Saturn.

I am brown in color.

I'm the sixth planet from the Sun.

My outer rings are extremely thin.

They're made of dust and icy chunks.

My name's Uranus.

I am blue color.

I'm the seventh planet from the Sun.

Humans have named me the icy planet because I am the coldest one.

My name is Neptune.

I am blue in color.

I'm the eighth planet from the Sun.

I have too many storms in my atmosphere and I'm the furthest planet from the Sun.

There are eight planets in the solar system.

We revolve around the Sun.

Join us to learn about the different planets.

Now sing along and have some fun.

I'm a star called the Sun.

I'm the center of our solar system.

You revolve around me as we fly around the galaxy.

All of the planets in our solar system they orbit well they follow me.

230 million years is the time I take to fly around the Milky Way galaxy.

I don't have a solid surface.

I'm made up of gases held together by my own gravity.

I'm made of 92.1% hydrogen H2 and 7.8% helium HE.

I'm a star called the Sun.

I'm the center of our solar system.

You revolve around me as we fly around the galaxy.

My core is 25% of my total mass and 27 million degrees.

My energy is the reason there is life on Earth.

There'll be no charge because I'm totally free.

My mass makes up 99.8% of our solar system.

Nothing in our system's hot as me.

I'm a star called the Sun.

I'm the center of our solar system.

You revolve around me as we fly around the galaxy.

Let's fly let's fly.

Let's fly let's fly.

Let's fly let's fly.

Let's fly let's fly.

Let's fly let's fly.

I am the first planet from our Sun you see.

My name is Mercury.

Nothing orbits faster than me.

The smallest planet with the second hottest degree.

My name is Mercury.

No one is smaller than me.

Messenger of the gods is what Mercury means.

The Romans gave me my name because I'm the fastest they'd seen.

A bit bigger I'd be than the Earth's moon that you see.

To fill the Earth one time it would take 18 of me.

I am the first planet from our Sun that beams but I'm the second hottest.

I can reach 800 degrees.

88 Earth days is the amount that I take to orbit our Sun once.

That makes one year on me.

I am the first planet from our Sun you see.

My name is Mercury.

Nothing orbits faster than me.

The smallest planet with the second hottest degree.

My name is Mercury.

No one is smaller than me.

59 Earth days equals one day on me.

My surface is made of stone covered in craters you see.

Oxygen sodium hydrogen helium and potassium up my exosphere.

I have no moons and I have no rings but I'm the second densest planet amongst other things.

I am the first planet from our Sun you see.

My name is Mercury.

Nothing orbits faster than me.

The smallest planet with the second hottest degree.

My name is Mercury.

No one is smaller than me.

I am Venus.

I'm the second planet from the Sun and the slowest rotating one of all the planets in our solar system.

Now learn and have some fun.

243 Earth days is how long it takes for me to orbit the Sun.

That makes just one of my days.

I'm 900 degrees.

Yeah that's Fahrenheit.

I'm the hottest planet in the solar system that's right.

The sun sets in my east and comes up in my west.

Due to retrograde rotation I spin backwards the best.

I'm the third brightest object to the naked eye from the planet of Earth when you look up in the sky.

I am Venus.

I'm the second planet from the Sun and I'm the slowest rotating one of all the planets in our solar system.

Now learn and have some fun.

Carbon dioxide and sulphuric acid clouds is what makes up my atmosphere and for this I am very proud.

Volcanoes mountains craters and some big lava planes are what up my bumpy surface and my clouds no rain.

I was named Venus after the goddess of love.

The Romans gave me my name due to my brightness above.

I am Venus.

I'm the second planet from the Sun and I'm the slowest rotating one of all the planets in our solar system.

Now learn and have some fun.

I am the Earth the only planet with organic life.

With 8.7 million species we all fight to survive.

You all live on me so work like bees in a hive and keep this planet really healthy so that we can all thrive.

My atmosphere is 78% nitrogen.

Another 21% of it is oxygen and other small percentages of other elements.

Without my atmosphere around you would be frozen.

I take 365 Earth days to orbit the Sun.

24 hours makes one day.

That's just one time that I'm spun.

You won't fly off into space.

Gravity's pulling you down as fast as 9.8 meters a second towards the ground.

I am the Earth the only planet with organic life.

With 8.7 million species we all fight to survive.

You all live on me so work like bees in a hive and keep this planet really healthy so that we can all thrive.

There are 12 different types of climates that exist on me.

Moderate polar dry and tropical are four groups you see.

Then there is continental.

It is the fifth category.

One climate in no group is highland way above the sea.

I'm the third planet from the Sun.

No one is denser me.

My axis tilted 23.5 yeah that's my degree.

4.5 billion years ago was when I was born you see.

I am the Earth the only planet with organic life.

With 8.7 million species we all fight to survive.

You all live on me so work like bees in a hive and keep this planet really healthy so that we can all thrive.

Let's visit the planet of Mars.

There's so much to learn on the planet of Mars.

The red planet in a billion stars.

Come and sing along about the planet of Mars.

I'm the fourth planet from our burning Sun and the second smallest planet in our solar system.

I have the tallest mountain named Olympus Mons.

It's the biggest volcano in our whole system.

Phobos and Deimos are my two moons.

Phobos is larger of the orbiting two.

It circles me three times a day and that's true but it takes 30 hours for Deimos to loop.

Let's visit the planet of Mars.

There's so much to learn on the planet of Mars.

The red planet in a billion stars.

Come and sing along about the planet of Mars.

I'm 142 million miles away from the Sun and its heat and that's why I'm chilly.

When you're on my surface then you'll probably freeze.

I am a cold negative 81 degrees.

24 hours and 37 minutes long is a full day on Mars so you've learned in this song.

687 is the amount of days it takes to orbit the Sun for my year to take place.

Let's visit the planet of Mars.

There's so much to learn on the planet of Mars.

The red planet in a billion stars.

Come and sing along about the planet of Mars.

Let's visit the planet of Mars.

There's so much to learn on the planet of Mars.

The red planet in a billion stars.

Come and sing along about the planet of Mars.

I am Ceres the smallest dwarf planet the closest dwarf to the Sun the star that we orbit.

Yeah I am Ceres.

I'm in the asteroid belt.

Between Jupiter and Mars is where my presence is felt.

I was spotted for the first time in 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi the Sicilian.

I was named after the goddess of agriculture.

The Romans gave me my name in their time and culture.

I am the smallest planet in our solar system.

It takes 4.6 years for me to go around our Sun.

I am Ceres the smallest dwarf planet the closest dwarf to the Sun the star that we orbit.

Yeah I am Ceres.

I'm in the asteroid belt.

Between Jupiter and Mars is where my presence is felt.

NASA's exploring me with a space probe named Don and found a crater named Occator that had bright spots on.

Nobody really knows why those sports are there what they're from but with all these scientists I'm sure the answer will come.

Then 2006 my status changed to a dwarf.

Before that I was a planet and I was an asteroid.

I am Ceres the smallest dwarf planet the closest dwarf to the Sun the star that we orbit.

Yeah I am Ceres.

I'm in the asteroid belt.

Between Jupiter and Mars is where my presence is felt.

My name is Jupiter the biggest planet you see.

No planet in our solar system is bigger than me.

My name is Jupiter.

A windy planet I be and I have 62 moons that rotate around me so free.

The Romans gave me my name after their king of the gods because my size is so massive in the sea of the stars.

Callisto Europa Ganymede and Io are my four biggest moons found by Galileo.

I'm the fastest spinning planet in our solar system.

10 hours equals one day.

My days are short as they come.

It takes 12 Earth years for me to orbit the Sun.

That makes one year on my surface.

That's a really long run.

My name is Jupiter the biggest planet you see.

No planet in our solar system is bigger than me.

My name is Jupiter.

A windy planet I be and I have 62 moons that rotate round me so free.

89000 miles is the amount that I'm wide.

I'm so big you could fit 1000 Earths inside.

I've got a giant red spot.

It is a raging storm.

Scientists think 400 years ago is when it took form.

Hydrogen and helium up most of my atmosphere.

I am a gas giant and an impressive sphere.

3.13 is the amount of degrees that I tilt on my axis.

Let's sing the chorus please.

My name is Jupiter the biggest planet you see.

No planet in our solar system is bigger than me.

My name is Jupiter.

A windy planet I be and I have 62 moons that rotate round me so free.

I am Saturn the sixth planet from the Sun.

I'm known for my rings by everyone.

I'm the second largest planet in our solar system.

Please come sing along until my teachings are done.

Out of my 62 moons 53 are named.

I am a gas giant all astronomers claim.

36184 is my radius in miles for you to explore.

10.44 meters that's per second you drop.

That's my gravity pulling towards my surface top.

10 hours and 39 minutes long is a day on my surface.

Let's sing this song.

I am Saturn the sixth planet from the Sun.

I'm known for my rings by everyone.

I'm the second largest planet in our solar system.

Please come sing along until my teachings are done.

It takes 29 years for me to orbit the Sun and my rings are made up of rock and icy chunks.

886 million miles away is my distance from the sun.

That is why I'm chilly.

Hydrogen and helium are what I'm mostly made of in my atmosphere from the surface above.

26.7 is the amount of degrees I spin on my axis.

I'm so cold that you freeze.

I am Saturn the sixth planet from the Sun.

I'm known for my rings by everyone.

I'm the second largest planet in our solar system.

Please come sing along until my teachings are done.

I am Saturn the sixth planet from the Sun.

I'm known for my rings by everyone.

I'm the second largest planet in our solar system.

Please come sing along until my teachings are done.

I am Uranus and I have 13 rings now.

Come sing along and learn about me.

Oh I am Uranus the seventh planet from the Sun.

About 17 hours is just one day on me.

I have 27 moons named after Shakespeare characters and I have 13 rings that you can clearly see.

About 84 Earth years makes just one Uranian year and my seasons last about 20 years each.

Negative 350 is my average degree and William Herschel did discover me.

I am Uranus and I have 13 rings now.

Come sing along and learn about me.

2.9 billion miles is my distance from our Sun and I am an icy giant.

It's so cold on me.

My atmosphere is mostly made up of the following three-- hydrogen methane and helium HE.

The tilt of my axis is at 98 degrees.

It's one of the steepest tilts in our galaxy.

Most of my mass is made up of the following three-- water methane and ammonia and H3.

I am Uranus and I have 13 rings now.

Come sing along and learn about me.

I'd like to thank you for learning about the planets on this page.

Go subscribe to us please no matter what your age.

My name is Neptune the eighth planet from our burning Sun.

I've got six rings made of dust and some rocky chunks.

I got my name from the Romans.

It means God of the sea.

My upper atmosphere has methane.

That's why I have blue on me.

Hydrogen and helium are the rest of my atmosphere.

I have 13 moons with one still waiting to confirm it's here.

Minus 392 degrees an average day on me and my winds are the strongest than any planet in our system see.

My name is Neptune the eighth planet from our burning Sun.

I've got six rings made of dust and some rocky chunks.

About 165 Earth years makes one Neptunian year.

57.7 Earths could fit in my giant sphere.

2.8 billion miles is my distance from our Sun.

One day on me is about 16 Earth hours of cold fun.

No life as we know it could survive on me.

I'm the fourth largest player in our system.

You'd have to agree.

My name is Neptune the eighth planet from our burning Sun.

I've got six rings made of dust and some rocky chunks.

My name is Pluto an ex-planet of the solar system.

I've been demoted to dwarf planet status so please listen.

I used to be the ninth planet in our solar system but didn't meet the three criteria the IAU had written.

One a planet must be in orbit around our Sun.

Two has the mass to assume hydrostatic equilibrium.

Three it has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.

And that is the reason that I am now a dwarf planet son.

My name is Pluto an ex-planet of the solar system.

I've been demoted to dwarf planet status so please listen.

I was discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh.

He worked as an astronomer from Lowell Observatory in Arizona.

I was named Pluto by an 11-year-old girl named Venetia Burney.

Pluto was the Roman god of the underworld.

Astronomers recently found I'm the biggest dwarf planet around.

736.3 is my radius and I'm brown.

My name is Pluto an ex-planet of the solar system.

I've been demoted to dwarf planet status so please listen.

Maybe the IAU will reverse my status to a planet but for now I'm happy being a dwarf planet so there you have it.

My name's Haumea.

I am the third dwarf from the Sun.

I am oval in shape due to the fast rotations I'm spun.

My name's Haumea.

There is debate on who discovered me.

It was either Caltech or a Spanish observatory.

My first nickname was Santa before the IAU named me.

In 2008 they changed me to dwarf status officially.

Yeah I am oval.

It's because I rotate at a high speed.

One of our system's fastest rotating large objects I be.

My name Haumea comes from the Hawaiian culture you see.

It means goddess of childbirth and fertility.

My name's Haumea.

I am the third dwarf from the Sun.

I am oval in shape due to the fast rotations I'm spun.

I have two moons Hi'iaka and Namaka orbiting me.

Namaka is the smaller.

Hi'iaka is large and icy.

3.9 hours makes just one day on my rocky surface.

I take 285 Earth years to one orbit.

My surface is believed to have a thin but icy coating.

Yeah I'm unique to other dwarf planets I am gloating.

I'm Haumea.

I am the third dwarf from the Sun.

I am oval in shape due to the fast rotations I'm spun.

I'm Makemake.

I was named by the human race.

I'm the third largest dwarf planet in outer space and my color is red and I have no atmosphere.

Have you noticed my shape I am a perfect sphere.

On March 31st in 2005 is when the Palomar Observatory brought me to life.

Easter Bunny was my name when they discovered me.

2008 the IAU confirmed me officially.

They also gave me the name that remains Makemake which was a Rapa Nui god of fertility.

I have no natural satellites that orbit around me.

Negative 239 is my average degree.

I'm Makemake.

I was named by the human race.

I'm the third largest dwarf planet in outer space and my color is red and I have no atmosphere.

Have you noticed my shape I am a perfect sphere.

Molecules named Tholins are thought to exist on me.

They're formed when ultraviolet light interacts with ethane you see.

These molecules me the reddish-brown color I be.

No space probes have visited me no missions have been deployed.

I orbit outside of Neptune which means that I'm a Plutoid.

I'm found inside the Kuiper belt with comets and the asteroids.

I'm Makemake.

I was named by the human race.

I'm the third largest dwarf planet in outer space and my color is red and I have no atmosphere.

Have you noticed my shape I am a perfect sphere.

My name is Eris.

I am a dwarf planet.

The furthest dwarf from the sun the humans found yet.

On January 5th in 2005 the Caltech Observatory had brought me to life.

A team led by astronomer Michael Brown the biggest dwarf in mass is what they had found.

They believe my surface is covered in nitrogen ice but you'd have to visit me to sure that's precise.

In 2006 the IAU named me and gave me dwarf status yeah officially.

My name is Eris.

I am a dwarf planet.

The furthest dwarf from the Sun the humans found yet.

Minus 390 is my average degree.

If you made it to my surface then you'd probably freeze.

Dysnomia's my one natural satellite see It means lawlessness and it is always orbiting me.

I'm 27% more massive than your Pluto.

Yeah Pluto is slightly larger than I am you know.

I take 557 Earth years to orbit the Sun.

When I orbit I leave the Kuiper belt on my run.

My name is Eris.

I am a dwarf planet the furthest dwarf from the Sun the humans found yet.

There are eight planets in our solar system.

Wait wait wait wait.

You guys had your chance in the spotlight.

It's time to talk about the dwarf planets in our solar system.

Hit it guys.

There are five dwarf planets in our solar system and we revolve around the Sun.

Four of us live in the Kuiper belt.

As far as planets we're the smallest ones.

My name is Ceres and I am a dwarf planet.

I'm the closest dwarf to the Sun.

There's mysterious white spots on my rocky surface and I am the smallest one.

My name is Pluto.

I'm a dwarf planet and was the ninth planet from the Sun.

I am one-third water in the form of ice and have five moons that are lots of fun.

My name's Haumea.

I am oval in shape due to the fast rotations that I make.

I take 285 years to orbit the Sun because I am so far away.

There are five dwarf planets in our solar system and we revolve around the Sun.

Four of us live in the Kuiper belt.

As far as planets we're the smallest ones.

I'm Makemake.

I have no atmosphere.

I was discovered in 2005.

I am one of the reasons Pluto lost his status so naturally we do not jive.

My name is Eris.

I'm more massive than Pluto.

I am big but I'm lots of fun.

557 is the amount of years it takes me to revolve around the Sun.

There are five dwarf planets in our solar system and we revolve around the Sun.

Four of us live in the Kuiper belt.

As far as planets we're the smallest ones.

I'm the Moon Earth's natural satellite.

I rotate the same speed as the Earth and I'm a natural source of light.

I'm the Moon.

My appearance is gray and white.

You only see one-half of my surface whether it's day or night.

It's believe I was created 4.5 billion years ago.

When a Mars-sized body collided with Earth their debris formed me real slow.

Meteors asteroids and comets struck my surface for a billion years due to the fact that they don't burn up in my thin atmosphere.

If you wonder what a moon is it's a natural satellite one that orbits a single planet.

The planet orbits a star so bright.

Scientific observations were first made in 1610 by Galileo Galilei the astronomer Italian.

I'm the Moon Earth's natural satellite.

I rotate the same speed as the Earth and I'm a natural source of light.

I'm the Moon.

My appearance is gray and white.

You only see one-half of my surface whether it's day or night.

When the Earth spins on its axis ocean levels stay the same.

Then the Moon's gravitational pull creates the tides that we see change.

238900 miles from the Earth is the distance measured when the first spaceship landed on my turf.

The reason you see one-half of my surface all the time is because my rotation's the same speed as the Earth taught in this rhyme.

It takes 27 Earth days for me to rotate once around.

There is no air on my surface so you won't hear any sound.

I'm the Moon Earth's natural satellite.

I rotate the same speed as the Earth and I'm a natural source of light.

I'm the Moon.

My appearance is gray and white.

You only see one-half of my surface whether it's day or night.

There are four seasons on the Earth.

Here is how they work.

Come and sing along.

Winter spring summer and fall learn about them all in this catchy song.

I'm the Earth.

I spin on my axis one complete time in 24 hours.

That's one full day of the year.

I am tilted at a degree between 22.1 and 24.5 within 40000 years.

365 is the amount of days I take to orbit the Sun only one time which makes one full Earth year.

There are four seasons on the Earth.

Here is how they work.

Come and sing along.

Winter spring summer and fall learn about them all in this catchy song.

When I'm tilted towards the Sun the Northern Hemisphere is deep in summer while the Southern hemisphere winter is on.

When I'm quarter way around the north feels fall while the south is thawing and their spring is in full swing.

When I'm halfway around and the north feels winter while the Southern Hemisphere feels summer's heat.

Three-quarters around and now the north feels spring while the south feels fall.

And that's how the seasons change.

There are four seasons on the Earth.

Here is how they work.

Come and sing along.

Winter spring summer and fall learn about them all in this catchy song.





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